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Crystal GlassCrystal Glass

Crystal Glass
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Name
Crystal Glass
Originaler Name
クリスタルガラス
Auch bekannt als?
Lead Glass

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Lead glass is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass. Lead glass contains typically 18–40 weight% lead(II) oxide (PbO), while modern lead crystal, historically also known as flint glass due to the original silica source, contains a minimum of 24% PbO. Lead glass is desirable owing to its decorative properties.

Technically, the term crystal is not applied to glass, as glass, by definition, lacks a crystalline structure. The use of the term lead crystal remains popular for historical and commercial reasons, and originally stems from the discovery in 1674 by Englishman George Ravenscroft that by adding lead oxide in quantities of between 10 and 30% the appearance of the glass improved and it was easier to melt using sea-coal as a furnace fuel, and had a longer "working period", and the Venetian use of the word cristallo to describe the rock crystal imitated by Murano glassmakers. This naming convention has been maintained to the present day to describe decorative hollow-ware.

Due to the potential health risks of lead that it contains, true lead crystal glassware is rare nowadays. One material that is commonly used to manufacture glassware and referred to as "crystal" is lead-free crystal glass. In lead-free crystal glass, barium oxide, zinc oxide, or potassium oxide are employed instead of lead oxide. Lead-free crystal has a similar refractive index to lead crystal, but it is lighter and it has less dispersive power. In the European Union, labeling of "crystal" products is regulated by Council Directive 69/493/EEC, which defines four categories, depending on the chemical composition and properties of the material. Only glass products containing at least 24% of lead oxide may be referred to as "lead crystal". Products with less lead oxide, or glass products with other metal oxides used in place of lead oxide, must be labeled "crystallin" or "crystal glass".
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